Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that can develop after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event. While its effects are varied and far-reaching, one lesser-known consequence of PTSD is the increased risk of developing a substance use disorder (SUD).
It is essential to recognize the connection between PTSD and SUDs, as it can help inform treatment plans and ensure that both conditions are adequately addressed. Below we will explore the complex relationship between PTSD and SUD, examining why these disorders often co-occur and the importance of addressing both conditions in the recovery process.
PTSD & SUD: A Co-Occurring Phenomenon
Research has consistently shown that PTSD and SUD frequently co-occur. It’s estimated that up to 50 percent of individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders also meet the criteria for PTSD. Similarly, people with PTSD are more likely to develop a substance use disorder compared to the general population. This relationship is multifaceted and influenced by various factors, including self-medication, shared risk factors, and changes in brain function.
The Connection Between PTSD & SUDs
Self-Medication: A Vicious Cycle
One of the primary reasons why individuals with PTSD may develop a substance use disorder is the attempt to self-medicate their symptoms. Traumatic experiences can lead to intense emotions, such as anxiety, fear, and recurrent memories/flashbacks, which may be difficult to cope with.
As such, some people turn to alcohol and drugs in an attempt to numb the psychological pain. Unfortunately, this behavior often leads to a vicious cycle, as the relief provided by substance use is temporary and ultimately reinforces the maladaptive coping pattern.
Shared Risk Factors: A Confluence Of Vulnerabilities
Shared risk factors also contribute to the co-occurrence of PTSD and SUD. Factors such as genetic predisposition, environmental influences, and personality traits like impulsivity or sensation-seeking can increase the risk of developing both conditions.
In other words, the same underlying vulnerabilities that predispose an individual to develop PTSD may also make them more susceptible to substance use disorders.
Brain Function: The Neurobiological Link
Finally, research has suggested that changes in brain function may be involved in the link between PTSD and SUD. When people are exposed to traumatic events, it can lead to long-term alterations in their neurochemistry, which can manifest as physical and psychological symptoms of PTSD.
However, these changes in brain function can also interfere with the reward centers of the brain and increase an individual’s vulnerability to developing a substance use disorder.
Addressing PTSD & SUD In Treatment
The co-occurrence of PTSD and SUD complicates the recovery process, as both conditions need to be addressed simultaneously to ensure the best possible outcomes. Integrated treatment models that focus on treating both PTSD and SUD have proven to be the most effective approach.
These programs may include a combination of several treatment options, including:
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT): This evidence-based therapy helps individuals identify and change maladaptive thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to both PTSD and SUD.
- Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): EMDR is a specific type of therapy designed to help individuals process and resolve traumatic memories, which can be beneficial for those with PTSD and co-occurring SUD.
- Medication-assisted treatment (MAT): Some individuals may benefit from medications that can help manage PTSD symptoms and support recovery from substance use disorders.
- Peer support groups: Connecting with others who have experienced similar struggles can provide valuable support and encouragement during the recovery process.
- Ketamine infusion therapy: Though not a first line of treatment, ketamine infusion therapy is increasingly being used to treat those with both PTSD and SUD, as it may help alleviate symptoms of both disorders simultaneously.
As a ketamine infusion clinic, Rainfall Medicine recognizes the importance of addressing the complex relationship between PTSD and substance use disorder for successful recovery. We believe that integrated treatment is crucial for individuals struggling with both PTSD and substance use disorder. By seeking appropriate treatment, patients can regain control over their mental health and break the cycle of substance use.
Don’t let PTSD and substance use disorder control your life any longer. Contact Rainfall Medicine today to take the first step toward regaining control of your mental health.